Internet of Things

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Internet of Things

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The "Internet of Things" connects devices and vehicles using electronic sensors and the Internet.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects—devices, vehicles, buildings and other items—embedded with electronics,softwaresensors, and network connectivity that enables these objects to collect and exchange data.[1] The IoT allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure,[2] creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit;[3][4][5][6][7][8] when IoT is augmented with sensors and actuators, the technology becomes an instance of the more general class of cyber-physical systems, which also encompasses technologies such as smart gridssmart homesintelligent transportation and smart cities. Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to interoperate within the existing Internet infrastructure. Experts estimate that the IoT will consist of almost 50 billion objects by 2020.[9]

British entrepreneur Kevin Ashton first coined the term in 1999 while working at Auto-ID Labs (originally called Auto-ID centers, referring to a global network of objects connected to radio-frequency identification, or RFID).[10] Typically, IoT is expected to offer advanced connectivity of devices, systems, and services that goes beyond machine-to-machine (M2M) communications and covers a variety of protocols, domains, and applications.[11] The interconnection of these embedded devices (including smart objects), is expected to usher in automation in nearly all fields, while also enabling advanced applications like a smart grid,[12] and expanding to the areas such as smart cities.[13][14]

"Things," in the IoT sense, can refer to a wide variety of devices such as heart monitoring implants, biochip transponders on farm animals, electric clams in coastal waters,[15]automobiles with built-in sensors, DNA analysis devices for environmental/food/pathogen monitoring[16] or field operation devices that assist firefighters in search and rescueoperations.[17] Legal scholars suggest to look at "Things" as an "inextricable mixture of hardware, software, data and service".[18] These devices collect useful data with the help of various existing technologies and then autonomously flow the data between other devices.[19][20] Current market examples include smart thermostat systems and washer/dryers that use Wi-Fi for remote monitoring.

As well as the expansion of Internet-connected automation into a plethora of new application areas, IoT is also expected to generate large amounts of data from diverse locations, with the consequent necessity for quick aggregation of the data, and an increase in the need to index, store, and process such data more effectively. IoT is one of the platforms of today's Smart City, and Smart Energy Management Systems.[21][22]

 

Early history

As of 2013, the vision of the Internet of Things has evolved due to a convergence of multiple technologies, ranging from wireless communication to the Internet and fromembedded systems to micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).[17] This means that the traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networkscontrol systems,automation (including home and building automation), and others all contribute to enabling the Internet of Things (IoT).

The concept of a network of smart devices was discussed as early as 1982, with a modified Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University becoming the first internet-connected appliance,[23] able to report its inventory and whether newly loaded drinks were cold.[24] Mark Weiser's seminal 1991 paper on ubiquitous computing, "The Computer of the 21st Century", as well as academic venues such as UbiComp and PerCom produced the contemporary vision of IoT.[25][26] In 1994 Reza Raji described the concept in IEEE Spectrumas "[moving] small packets of data to a large set of nodes, so as to integrate and automate everything from home appliances to entire factories".[27] Between 1993 and 1996 several companies proposed solutions like Microsoft's at Work or Novell's NEST. However, only in 1999 did the field start gathering momentum. Bill Joy envisioned Device to Device (D2D) communication as part of his "Six Webs" framework, presented at the World Economic Forum at Davos in 1999.[28]

The concept of the Internet of Things first became popular in 1999, through the Auto-ID Center at MIT and related market-analysis publications.[29] Radio-frequency identification (RFID) was seen by Kevin Ashton (one of the founders of the original Auto-ID Center) as a prerequisite for the Internet of Things at that point.[30] If all objects and people in daily life were equipped with identifiers, computers could manage and inventory them.[31][32] Besides using RFID, the tagging of things may be achieved through such technologies asnear field communicationbarcodesQR codes and digital watermarking.[33][34]

In its original interpretation,[when?] one of the first consequences of implementing the Internet of Things by equipping all objects in the world with minuscule identifying devices or machine-readable identifiers would be to transform daily life.[35][36] For instance, instant and ceaseless inventory control would become ubiquitous.[36] A person's ability to interact with objects could be altered remotely based on immediate or present needs, in accordance with existing end-user agreements.[30] For example, such technology could grant motion-picture publishers much more control over end-user private devices by remotely enforcing copyright restrictions and digital restrictions management, so the ability of a customer who bought a Blu-ray disc to watch the movie becomes dependent on so-called "copyright holder's" decision, similar to Circuit City's failed DIVX.

Applications

According to Gartner, Inc. (a technology research and advisory corporation), there will be nearly 26 billion devices on the Internet of Things by 2020.[37] ABI Research estimates that more than 30 billion devices will be wirelessly connected to the Internet of Things by 2020.[38] As per a recent survey and study done by Pew Research Internet Project, a large majority of the technology experts and engaged Internet users who responded—83 percent—agreed with the notion that the Internet/Cloud of Things, embedded andwearable computing (and the corresponding dynamic systems[39]) will have widespread and beneficial effects by 2025.[40] As such, it is clear that the IoT will consist of a very large number of devices being connected to the Internet.[41] In an active move to accommodate new and emerging technological innovation, the UK Government, in their 2015 budget, allocated £40,000,000 towards research into the Internet of Things. The British Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne, posited that the Internet of Things is the next stage of the information revolution and referenced the inter-connectivity of everything from urban transport to medical devices to household appliances.[42]

Integration with the Internet implies that devices will use an IP address as a unique identifier. However, due to the limited address space of IPv4 (which allows for 4.3 billion unique addresses), objects in the IoT will have to use IPv6 to accommodate the extremely large address space required.[43][44][45][46][47] Objects in the IoT will not only be devices with sensory capabilities, but also provide actuation capabilities (e.g., bulbs or locks controlled over the Internet).[48] To a large extent, the future of the Internet of Things will not be possible without the support of IPv6; and consequently the global adoption of IPv6 in the coming years will be critical for the successful development of the IoT in the future.[44][45][46][47]

The ability to network embedded devices with limited CPU, memory and power resources means that IoT finds applications in nearly every field.[49] Such systems could be in charge of collecting information in settings ranging from natural ecosystems to buildings and factories,[48] thereby finding applications in fields of environmental sensing and urban planning.[50]
On the other hand, IoT systems could also be responsible for performing actions, not just sensing things. Intelligent shopping systems, for example, could monitor specific users' purchasing habits in a store by tracking their specific mobile phones. These users could then be provided with special offers on their favorite products, or even location of items that they need, which their fridge has automatically conveyed to the phone.[51][52] Additional examples of sensing and actuating are reflected in applications that deal with heat, electricity and energy management, as well as cruise-assisting transportation systems.[53] Other applications that the Internet of Things can provide is enabling extended home security features and home automation. The concept of an "internet of living things" has been proposed to describe networks of biological sensors that could use cloud-based analyses to allow users to study DNA or other molecules.[54] All these advances add to the numerous list of IoT applications. Now with IoT, you can control the electrical devices installed in your house while you are sorting out your files in office. Your water will be warm as soon as you get up in the morning for the shower. All credit goes to smart devices which make up the smart home. Everything connected with the help of Internet.[55]

However, the application of the IoT is not only restricted to these areas. Other specialized use cases of the IoT may also exist. An overview of some of the most prominent application areas is provided here. Based on the application domain, IoT products can be classified broadly into five different categories: smart wearable, smart home, smart city, smart environment, and smart enterprise. The IoT products and solutions in each of these markets have different characteristics.[56]

Media

In order to hone the manner in which the Internet of Things (IoT), the Media and Big Data are interconnected, it is first necessary to provide some context into the mechanism used for media process. It has been suggested by Nick Couldry and Joseph Turow that Practitioners in Media approach Big Data as many actionable points of information about millions of individuals. The industry appears to be moving away from the traditional approach of using specific media environments such as newspapers, magazines, or television shows and instead tap into consumers with technologies that reach targeted people at optimal times in optimal locations. The ultimate aim is of course to serve, or convey, a message or content that is (statistically speaking) in line with the consumer's mindset. For example, publishing environments are increasingly tailoring messages (advertisements) and content (articles) to appeal to consumers that have been exclusively gleaned through various data-mining activities.[57]

The media industries process big data in a dual, interconnected manner:

  • Targeting of consumers (for advertising by marketers)
  • Data-capture

Thus, the internet of things creates an opportunity to measure, collect and analyse an ever-increasing variety of behavioural statistics. Cross-correlation of this data could revolutionise the targeted marketing of products and services.[58] For example, as noted by Danny Meadows-Klue, the combination of analytics for conversion tracking withbehavioural targeting has unlocked a new level of precision that enables display advertising to be focused on the devices of people with relevant interests.[59] Big Data and the IoT work in conjunction. From a media perspective, Data is the key derivative of device inter connectivity, whilst being pivotal in allowing clearer accuracy in targeting. The Internet of Things therefore transforms the media industry, companies and even governments, opening up a new era of economic growth and competitiveness.[60] The wealth of data generated by this industry (i.e. big data) will allow Practitioners in Advertising and Media to gain an elaborate layer on the present targeting mechanisms used by the industry.

Environmental monitoring

Environmental monitoring applications of the IoT typically use sensors to assist in environmental protection[61] by monitoring air or water quality,[15] atmospheric or soil conditions,[62] and can even include areas like monitoring the movements of wildlife and their habitats.[63] Development of resource constrained devices connected to the Internet also means that other applications like earthquake or tsunami early-warning systems can also be used by emergency services to provide more effective aid. IoT devices in this application typically span a large geographic area and can also be mobile.[48] It has been argued that the standardisation IoT brings to wireless sensing will revolutionise this area.[64]

Infrastructure management

Monitoring and controlling operations of urban and rural infrastructures like bridges, railway tracks, on- and offshore- wind-farms is a key application of the IoT.[65] The IoT infrastructure can be used for monitoring any events or changes in structural conditions that can compromise safety and increase risk. It can also be used for scheduling repair and maintenance activities in an efficient manner, by coordinating tasks between different service providers and users of these facilities.[48] IoT devices can also be used to control critical infrastructure like bridges to provide access to ships. Usage of IoT devices for monitoring and operating infrastructure is likely to improve incident management and emergency response coordination, and quality of service, up-times and reduce costs of operation in all infrastructure related areas.[66] Even areas such as waste management can benefit from automation and optimization that could be brought in by the IoT.[67]

Manufacturing

Network control and management of manufacturing equipmentasset and situation management, or manufacturing process control bring the IoT within the realm on industrial applications and smart manufacturing as well.[68] The IoT intelligent systems enable rapid manufacturing of new products, dynamic response to product demands, and real-time optimization of manufacturing production and supply chain networks, by networking machinery, sensors and control systems together.[48]

Digital control systems to automate process controls, operator tools and service information systems to optimize plant safety and security are within the purview of the IoT.[65] But it also extends itself to asset management via predictive maintenancestatistical evaluation, and measurements to maximize reliability.[69] Smart industrial management systems can also be integrated with the Smart Grid, thereby enabling real-time energy optimization. Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization, health and safety management, and other functions are provided by a large number of networked sensors.[48]

National Science Foundation established an Industry/University Cooperative Research Center on Intelligent Maintenance Systems (IMS) in 2001 with a research focus to use IoT-based predictive analytics technologies to monitor connected machines and to predict machine degradation, and further to prevent potential failures.[70] The vision to achieve near-zero breakdown using IoT-based predictive analytics led the future development of e-manufacturing and e-maintenance activities.[71]

The term IIOT (Industrial Internet of Things) is often encountered in the manufacturing industries, referring to the industrial subset of the IoT. IIoT in manufacturing would probably generate so much business value that it will eventually lead to the fourth industrial revolution, so the so-called Industry 4.0. It is estimated that in the future, successful companies will be able to increase their revenue through Internet of Things by creating new business models and improve productivity, exploit analytics for innovation, and transform workforce.[72] The potential of growth by implementing IIoT will generate $12 trillion of global GDP by 2030.[73]

 

Design architecture of cyber-physical systems-enabled manufacturing system[74]

While connectivity and data acquisition are imperative for IIoT, they should be the foundation and path to something bigger but not the purpose. Among all the technologies, predictive maintenance is probably a relatively “easier win” since it is applicable to existing assets and management systems. The objective of intelligent maintenance systems is to reduce unexpected downtime and increase productivity. And to realize that alone would generate around up to 30% over total maintenance costs.[75] Industrial Big Data analytics will play a vital role in manufacturing asset predictive maintenance, although that is not the only capability ofIndustrial Big Data.[76][77] Cyber-physical systems (CPS) is the core technology of Industrial Big Data and it is will be an interface between human and the cyber world. Cyber-physical systems can be designed by following the “5C” (Connection, Conversion, Cyber, Cognition, Configuration) architecture,[74] and it will transform the collected data into actionable information, and eventually interfere with the physical assets to optimize processes.

An IIoT-enabled intelligent system of such cases has been demonstrated by the NSF Industry/University Collaborative Research Center for Intelligent Maintenance Systems (IMS) at University of Cincinnati on a band saw machine in IMTS 2014 in Chicago.[78] Band saw machines are not necessarily expensive, but the band saw belt expenses are enormous since they degrade much faster. However, without sensing and intelligent analytics, it can be only determined by experience when the band saw belt will actually break. The developed prognostics system will be able to recognize and monitor the degradation of band saw belts even if the condition is changing, so that users will know in near real time when is the best time to replace band saw. This will significantly improve user experience and operator safety, and save costs on replacing band saw belts before they actually break. The developed analytical algorithms were realized on a cloud server, and was made accessible via the Internet and on mobile devices.[78]

Energy management

Integration of sensing and actuation systems, connected to the Internet, is likely to optimize energy consumption as a whole.[48] It is expected that IoT devices will be integrated into all forms of energy consuming devices (switches, power outlets, bulbs, televisions, etc.) and be able to communicate with the utility supply company in order to effectively balance power generation and energy usage.[79] Such devices would also offer the opportunity for users to remotely control their devices, or centrally manage them via a cloudbased interface, and enable advanced functions like scheduling (e.g., remotely powering on or off heating systems, controlling ovens, changing lighting conditions etc.).[48] In fact, a few systems that allow remote control of electric outlets are already available in the market, e.g., Belkin's WeMo,[80] Ambery Remote Power Switch,[81] Budderfly,[82] Telkonet's EcoGuard,[83] WhizNets Inc.,[84] etc.

Besides home based energy management, the IoT is especially relevant to the Smart Grid since it provides systems to gather and act on energy and power-related information in an automated fashion with the goal to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.[79] Using Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) devices connected to the Internet backbone, electric utilities can not only collect data from end-user connections, but also manage other distribution automation devices like transformers and reclosers.[48]

Medical and healthcare systems

IoT devices can be used to enable remote health monitoring and emergency notification systems. These health monitoring devices can range from blood pressure and heart rate monitors to advanced devices capable of monitoring specialized implants, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids.[48] Specialized sensors can also be equipped within living spaces to monitor the health and general well-being of senior citizens, while also ensuring that proper treatment is being administered and assisting people regain lost mobility via therapy as well.[85] Other consumer devices to encourage healthy living, such as, connected scales or wearable heart monitors, are also a possibility with the IoT.[86]More and more end-to-end health monitoring IoT platforms are coming up for antenatal and chronic patients, helping one manage health vitals and recurring medication requirements.[citation needed]

Building and home automation

IoT devices can be used to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and electronic systems used in various types of buildings (e.g., public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential)[48] in home automation and building automation systems.

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Posted in Internet on Mar 01, 2016


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